Gender Specific Distribution Of different patterns of Diabetic Retinopathy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. A Cross-Sectional Study From a tertiary care specialized center in Lahore, Pakistan

  • Muhammad Imran Hasan Khan Ameer ud Din Medical College
  • Ammara Waqar Lahore General Hospital
  • Ayesha Riaz Lahore General Hospital
  • Usama Azhar Lahore General Hospital
  • Aemin Tariq Lahore General Hospital
  • Irsa Ismail Lahore General Hospital
  • Fizza Zubair Lahore General Hospital
Keywords: Distribution, Diabetes Mellitus, Retinopathy, Gender


The patients of diabetic retinopathy are not aware of early retinal vascular dysfunction, which is a feature of diabetic retinopathy.

This study aimed to detect the different patterns of diabetic retinopathy and distribution in different genders, at a tertiary care specialized center.

Consecutive patients attending the Diabetes Endocrine and Metabolic Center (DEMC) were consented and examined for a period of six months. Direct and indirect ophthalmoscopes were used by an ophthalmologist for fundus examination .Grading of the retinopathy patterns was done by  International Clinical Diabetic Retinopathy Disease Severity Scale (ICDRDSS). The data was analyzed using SPSS version 23.

A total number of 250 patients were examined during the six months period of study. The frequency of diabetic retinopathy was more in females as compared to males. The incidence of non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy was more in males as compared to females, and the prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy was same in both genders. Greater number of females had clinically significant macular edema and advance diabetic retinopathy was observed in only males.

Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is common in our setup, with different genders having different prevalence of eye problems. A screening strategy system is needed to develop for the early detection and treatment of preventable cause of blindness in patients with type2 diabetes mellitus.